Tag Archives: recession

No, The Big Banks Have Not "Paid Back" Government Bailouts and Subsidies


No, The Big Banks Have Not “Paid Back” Government Bailouts and Subsidies

Source: zero hedge – on a long enough timeline, the survival rate for everyone drops to zero
Author: George Washington – Washington’s Blog

The big banks claim that they have paid back all of the bailout money they received, and that the taxpayers have actually made money on the bailouts.
However, as Barry Ritholtz notes:

Pro Publica has been maintaining a list of bailout recipients, updating the amount lent versus what was repaid.
So far, 938 Recipients have had $607,822,512,238 dollars committed to them, with $553,918,968,267 disbursed. Of that $554b disbursed, less than half — $220,782,546,084 — has been returned.
Whenever you hear pronunciations of how much money the TARP is making, check back and look at this list. It shows the TARP is deeply underwater.

Moreover, as I pointed out in May, the big banks have received enormous windfall profits from guaranteed spreads on interest rates:

Bloomberg notes:

“The trading profits of the Street is just another way of measuring the subsidy the Fed is giving to the banks,” said Christopher Whalen, managing director of Torrance, California-based Institutional Risk Analytics. “It’s a transfer from savers to banks.”
The trading results, which helped the banks report higher quarterly profit than analysts estimated even as unemployment stagnated at a 27-year high, came with a big assist from the Federal Reserve. The U.S. central bank helped lenders by holding short-term borrowing costs near zero, giving them a chance to profit by carrying even 10-year government notes that yielded an average of 3.70 percent last quarter.
The gap between short-term interest rates, such as what banks may pay to borrow in interbank markets or on savings accounts, and longer-term rates, known as the yield curve, has been at record levels. The difference between yields on 2- and 10-year Treasuries yesterday touched 2.71 percentage points, near the all-time high of 2.94 percentage points set Feb. 18.

Harry Blodget explains:

The latest quarterly reports from the big Wall Street banks revealed a startling fact: None of the big four banks had a single day in the quarter in which they lost money trading.
For the 63 straight trading days in Q1, in other words, Goldman Sachs (GS), JP Morgan (JPM), Bank of America (BAC), and Citigroup (C) made money trading for their own accounts.
Trading, of course, is supposed to be a risky business: You win some, you lose some. That’s how traders justify their gargantuan bonuses–their jobs are so risky that they deserve to be paid millions for protecting their firms’ precious capital. (Of course, the only thing that happens if traders fail to protect that capital is that taxpayers bail out the bank and the traders are paid huge “retention” bonuses to prevent them from leaving to trade somewhere else, but that’s a different story).
But these days, trading isn’t risky at all. In fact, it’s safer than walking down the street.

Why?
 Because the US government is lending money to the big banks at near-zero interest rates. And the banks are then turning around and lending that money back to the US government at 3%-4% interest rates, making 3%+ on the spread. What’s more, the banks are leveraging this trade, borrowing at least $10 for every $1 of equity capital they have, to increase the size of their bets. Which means the banks can turn relatively small amounts of equity into huge profits–by borrowing from the taxpayer and then lending back to the taxpayer.

The government’s zero-interest-rate policy, in other words, is the biggest Wall Street subsidy yet. So far, it has done little to increase the supply of credit in the real economy. But it has hosed responsible people who lived within their means and are now earning next-to-nothing on their savings. It has also allowed the big Wall Street banks to print money to offset all the dumb bets that brought the financial system to the brink of collapse two years ago. And it has fattened Wall Street bonus pools to record levels again.

Paul Abrams chimes in:

To get a clear picture of what is going on here, ignore the intermediate steps (borrowing money from the fed, investing in Treasuries), as they are riskless, and it immediately becomes clear that this is merely a direct payment from the Fed to the banking executives…for nothing. No nifty new tech product has been created. No illness has been treated. No teacher has figured out how to get a third-grader to understand fractions. No singer’s voice has entertained a packed stadium. No batter has hit a walk-off double. No “risk”has even been “managed”, the current mantra for what big banks do that is so goddamned important that it is doing “god’s work”.
Nor has any credit been extended to allow the real value-producers to meet payroll, to reserve a stadium, to purchase capital equipment, to hire employees. Nothing.
Congress should put an immediate halt to this practice. Banks should have to show that the money they are borrowing from the Fed is to provide credit to businesses, or consumers, or homeowners. Not a penny should be allowed to be used to purchase Treasuries. Otherwise, the Fed window should be slammed shut on their manicured fingers.
And, stiff criminal penalties should be enacted for those banks that mislead the Fed about the destination of the money they are borrowing. Bernie Madoff needs company.

There is another type of guaranteed spread that allows the giant banks to make money hand over fist. Specifically, the Fed pays the big banks interest to borrow money at no interest and then keep money parked at the Fed itself. (The Fed is intentionally doing this for the express purpose of preventing too much money from being lent out to Main Street.)

The newly-released Fed data shows that the Fed also threw money at many of the big banks at ridiculously low interest rates.
And as I also pointed out, the government gave tax subsidies to the too big to fails:

The Treasury Department encouraged banks to use the bailout money to buy their competitors, and pushed through an amendment to the tax laws which rewards mergers in the banking industry (this has caused a lot of companies to bite off more than they can chew, destabilizing the acquiring companies).

Indeed, the Wall Street Journal noted this week:

A series of tax relief measures is saving companies bailed out by the government billions of dollars at a time when concern over tax revenues has risen.

Although the Treasury Department first provided the tax guidance in the fall of 2008, the magnitude of the tax savings has become clearer in the past year ….

“The agencies are literally throwing gratuities at banks and other companies,” said Christopher Whalen, a bank stock analyst at Institutional Risk Analytics.

And as I’ve previously reported:

Too Big As Subsidy 
The Treasury Department encouraged banks to use the bailout money to buy their competitors, and pushed through an amendment to the tax laws which rewards mergers in the banking industry (this has caused a lot of companies to bite off more than they can chew, destabilizing the acquiring companies)
***
The fact that the giant banks are “too big to fail” encourages them to take huge, risky gambles that they would not otherwise take. If they win, they make big bucks. If they lose, they know the government will just bail them out. This is a gambling subsidy.
The very size of the too big to fails also decreases the ability of the smaller banks to compete. And – since the government itself helped make the giants even bigger – that is also a subsidy to the big boys (see this).
The monopoly power given to the big banks (technically an “oligopoly“) is a subsidy in other ways as well. For example, Nobel prize winning economist Joseph Stiglitz said in
September that giants like Goldman are using their size to manipulate the market:

“The main problem that Goldman raises is a question of size: ‘too big to fail.’ In some markets, they have a significant fraction of trades. Why is that important? They trade both on their proprietary desk and on behalf of customers. When you do that and you have a significant fraction of all trades, you have a lot of information.”

Further, he says, “That raises the potential of conflicts of interest, problems of front-running, using that inside information for your proprietary desk. And that’s why the Volcker report came out and said that we need to restrict the kinds of activity that these large institutions have. If you’re going to trade on behalf of others, if you’re going to be a commercial bank, you can’t engage in certain kinds of risk-taking behavior.”

The giants (especially Goldman Sachs) have also used high-frequency program trading which not only distorted the markets – making up more than 70% of stock trades – but which also let the program trading giants take a sneak peak at what the real (aka “human”) traders are buying and selling, and then trade on the insider information. See this, this, this, this and this. (This isfrontrunning, which is illegal; but it is a lot bigger than garden variety frontrunning, because the program traders are not only trading based on inside knowledge of what their own clients are doing, they are also trading based on knowledge of what all other traders are doing).
Goldman also admitted that its proprietary trading program can “manipulate the markets in unfair ways”. The giant banks have also allegedly used their Counterparty Risk Management Policy Group (CRMPG) to exchange secret information and formulate coordinated mutually beneficial actions, all with the government’s blessings.
In addition, the giants receive many billions in subsidies by receiving government guarantees that they are “too big to fail”, ensuring that they have to pay lower interest rates to attract depositors.

Derivatives 

The government’s failure to rein in derivatives or break up the giant banks also constitute enormous subsidies, as it allows the giants to make huge sums by keeping the true price points of their derivatives secret. See this and this.
Toxic Assets
The PPIP program – which was supposed to reduce the toxic assets held by banks – actually increased them, and just let the banks make a quick buck.
In addition, the government suspended mark-to-market valuation of the toxic assets held by the giant banks, and is allowing the banks to value the assets at whatever price they desire. This constitutes a huge giveaway to the big banks.
As one writer notes:

By allowing banks to legally disregard mark-to-market accounting rules, government allows banks to maintain investment grade ratings.
By maintaining investment grade ratings, banks attract institutional funds. That would be the insurance and pension funds money that is contributed by the citizen.
As institutional money pours in, the stock price is propped up ….

Mortgages and Housing
PhD economists John Hussman and Dean Baker (and fund manager and financial writer Barry Ritholtz) say that the only reason the government keeps giving billions to Fannie and Freddie is that it is really a huge, ongoing, back-door bailout of the big banks.

Many also accuse Obama’s foreclosure relief programs as being backdoor bailouts for the banks. (See thisthis and this).
 
Foreign Bailouts 

The big banks – such as JP Morgan – also benefit from foreign bailouts, such as the European bailout, as they are some of the largest creditors of the bailed out countries, and the bailouts allow them to get paid in full, instead of having to write down their foreign losses.

When all of the different bailouts and subsidies given to the big banks are added up, it is obvious that they have not come anywhere close to “paying back” what we gave to them.

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Insider Selling To Buying: 2,341 To 1 | zero hedge


Insider Selling To Buying: 2,341 To 1

Insider Selling To Buying: 2,341 To 1 | zero hedge

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The MasterFeeds

– VW warns on risk of decline in car market



VW warns on risk of decline in car market 

FT.com / Companies / Automobiles –

By Daniel Schäfer in Berlin
Published: August 13 2010 18:54 | Last updated: August 13 2010 18:55
Volkswagen on Friday sounded a warning bell over the recovery prospects for the motor industry, as Europe’s largest carmaker warned that the global car market could shrink in the second half of this year.
Christian Klingler, VW’s executive board member and head of sales, cautioned of a bumpy road ahead after the carmaker’s July sales growth considerably slowed down.
“Now that incentive programmes have come to an end, the global automotive market is expected to decline in the second half of the year,” Mr Klingler said, in a warning shot that took even close market observers by surprise.
While it is common sense among analysts and car executives that growth will slow in the second half of the year, most do not forecast vehicle sales to fall.
“We expect global sales to remain just above the level seen in the second half of 2009,” said Christoph Stürmer, analyst at IHS Global Insight.
But he added that production levels would drop significantly, as many mass market carmakers had ramped up their plant output too fast in the first six months.
“It was about time that someone came out with a warning, as the car industry has become overly euphoric,” Mr Stürmer said. “This [high level of production] will lead to a pricing battle in the remainder of the year.”
Global carmakers have been basking in a rapid sales recovery in the first half of the year, which helped many to return to profits and revenue growth after last year’s economic crisis. But as state-sponsored scrappage incentives run out and austerity measures kick in all over the continent, IHS Global Insight forecasts western European car sales to fall by 1.1m units to 5.5m vehicles year-on-year in the second half.
Car sales in the US and China, the main demand drivers in the first six months, are still growing but have been losing steam rapidly in the past few months.
VW’s July sales highlighted how the car market recovery is rapidly losing traction.
In the past month, the multi-branded carmaker’s deliveries grew by 2.9 per cent to 572,200 cars.
This marked a steady decline from the growth rates of 5.7 per cent in June and 8.6 per cent in May. Due to a much faster upswing in the first quarter of the year, VW’s sales are still up by 13.7 per cent in the first seven months.
VW, which is set to add sports car maker Porsche to its stable of nine brands next year, sold a record 4.16m cars between January and July.
But Mr Klingler warned that this pace would be difficult to maintain. “There will not be a return to the high pre-crisis levels this year,” he said, referring to the global car markets.
“Over the coming months we will continue on our growth path . . . However, this will be a challenge, given an operating environment that is again becoming difficult,” he added.

FT.com / Companies / Automobiles – VW warns on risk of decline in car market

Blackstone’s Byron Wien Singlehandedly Refutes The Double Dip, Hilarity Abounds


Blackstone’s Byron Wien Singlehandedly Refutes The Double Dip, Hilarity Abounds
To all the bulls out there, we have a Wien-er just for you. In an essay that is basically a sequel to last week’s job application in a second-tier position in the administration by a Moody’s strategist and a Princeton economist (yes, yes, we know… oxymorons), the BlackStone head of something, Byron Wien, says the fututre for the market, the economy, and pretty much everything else is brighter than a nuclear bomb (incidentally one going off today would likely send the market into the greatest melt up in history). Lest there be any confuction what Byron’s view is: “My view is that the economy is going through a temporary lull and business conditions will improve later this year and in 2011.” At least Wien is honest: “In preparing this essay I used research from Goldman Sachs, Lord Abbett, Credit Suisse and International Strategy and Investments for arguments on both sides of the double-dip issue.” Mmhmm – that some serious “both sides” source list. And the piece de resistance: “The factors that argue against a resumption of the recession are the strong liquidity position of corporations which have 6% of their assets in cash, a level not seen since the 1960s, and the fact that both housing and autos are at low levels of production and not likely to drop further.” Over the weekend we will present an extended analysis finally putting to rest the inane argument that corporations are flush with cash: while true on a gross basis, the net level of cash vs debt, and especially vs equity, is at one of the worst levels in history. This ongoing childish avoidances of the liability side of the corporate balance sheet must stop and someone has to finally shut up these so called sophisticated economists and their endless lies.  Feel free to print out two copies of the attached Wien essay: we hear his work “product” is much better in two ply format.
  h/t FMX Connect

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